The more common outdoor lighting design is the lighting of roads, residential areas, squares, etc. Its function is to ensure the safety of personnel in the dark, to meet the extreme requirements of important visual functions, to reduce the fear of participants and to maintain public order. As a lighting design, national codes have clearly defined the design. However, the road lighting of different scopes of use, such as urban roads, industrial and mining enterprise roads and residential community roads, is designed differently.
1 Content 1.1 Differences in lighting design between residential lighting and urban road lighting
Conventionally, the lighting design for evaluating a lighting project usually has the following contents: what kind of light source, light efficiency, brightness, brightness uniformity, glare, visual guidance, and the like. High-efficiency high-pressure sodium lamps or high-pressure mercury lamps are commonly used in outdoor lighting. High-pressure sodium lamps with higher efficiency and longer life are generally used in road lighting design. However, there are differences in the design of residential lighting. Because the community (except the main road, main entrance, and public living area) requires quiet environment, the cool color light source is easier. It gives people a feeling of static, so high-pressure mercury lamps are also commonly used in the community.
The average illuminance of a typical cell is around 1 lx/m2, while the road is about 2 lx/m2. From a numerical point of view, residential lighting is much darker than road lighting. In fact, this is not the case. It is only the road that has certain requirements for brightness uniformity (the ratio of minimum brightness to average brightness), generally not less than 40%. Because for fast-moving vehicles, significant changes in brightness can easily cause visual errors or even temporarily lose sight, causing traffic accidents. However, the speed of vehicles and personnel in the community is relatively slow. For residential communities, the concept of brightness uniformity has no practical significance. Therefore, some main entrances, intersections, and public areas in residential areas have higher brightness, while other places have lower brightness, so the average brightness is lower. For the same consideration of transportation, the road requires no glare or glare, so the roads are equipped with cut-off or half-cut lamps to prevent glare and increase luminous efficiency. The community lighting does not limit the glare. It can use non-cutting lamps. At the same time, because the light of non-cutting lamps is not only hit the ground, but also hit other working surfaces (such as walls, trees, buildings, etc.), To a certain ambient lighting effect.
The visual guidance of lighting is generally related to the arrangement of the lamps. The one-sided alignment is the strongest, the bilateral symmetry is second, and the bilateral crossing is the second. Since the general road is relatively straight, the change is small, and the lighting guiding requirements are low, most of the two sides have a uniform double-sided crossover and a bilateral symmetric arrangement. The road type of the residential area is relatively complicated, with many intersections and many forks. Therefore, lighting is required to have a good visual guidance function. Generally, single-sided arrangement is adopted, and even in the main road of a residential road with a wide road, bilateral symmetric arrangement is adopted. In addition, lighting design in the community should always pay attention to avoid the adverse effects of outdoor lighting on the indoor environment of the residents, which is mainly controlled by selecting reasonable lamps and appropriate lamp positions.
1.2 Differences in electrical design between residential lighting and urban road lighting
The distribution box of road lighting is generally in the middle of the road, sending power to both sides, which is strip type, the line is long but the fork is less; and the distribution box of the residential area is generally located in the center of the community, and is sent to the surrounding area, which is the central radiation type. The line is not long, but the fork is more. Therefore, residential power distribution tends to have more outlets, but each line has a smaller load and a shorter transmission distance. Road lighting selection wires often need to consider three aspects of load, voltage drop and protection. In order to reduce line voltage loss, it is best to use three-phase balanced transmission. In residential lighting, there is no need to consider pressure drop, and should focus on how the load is distributed.
1.3 Differences between residential lighting and urban road lighting in lamp design
The lamp type design is divided into two aspects: structural design and exterior design. The width of urban roads is generally 15m and above, and the roads in residential areas are generally 3~5m. In order to obtain better uniformity and prevent glare, the height of urban road lampposts is generally 0.6 to 1.2 times the road width. Due to the high altitude, wind loads must be calculated. The materials are mainly steel pipes; Convenient, the lamp height is between 2.5 and 4m, and the material can be selected from steel pipe, cast aluminum, stainless steel, etc. Road lighting design should generally be consistent with the overall style of the city, while also matching some of the characteristic roads with the surrounding buildings. Take Wuxi as an example. This is a modern commercial city. The road light type should be simple, bright and modern. The lamp post can be cylindrical or conical steel tube. The lamp type is usually single or double.
The residential district lighting is completely based on the building style and environment of the community, and there are many types of lights. However, in order to facilitate maintenance in the future, it is recommended to use single or double fork lights as much as possible. This type of lamp can have more freedom in designing the lamp holder to pursue the beauty of the overall lamp type. In addition, the light column of the community has lower requirements on strength, and it can be considered to use more stainless steel materials with beautiful appearance but less strength.
1.4 Residential area ambient lighting and urban road lighting design The lighting design of modern residential quarters is not only the lighting design of residential roads, but also some floodlighting design. Lighting design is divided into two categories, bright lighting and ambient lighting. Road lighting is mainly for bright lighting (continued on page 108) (continued from page 103), relating to lighting physiology, generally requiring sufficient brightness, uniformity, no glare on the work surface, illuminator arrangement and surrounding coordination, light source The color rendering is good; the ambient lighting is different, mainly related to lighting psychology. Generally, the light or darkness of the illuminated surface should be designed according to the needs, sometimes the dark light is required to cause the atmosphere.
The illuminance should be different, and the glare can be used to create a sense of charm. The color can be illuminated by special colored light. ~ 2 highlights, the brightness of the highlights is about 3 times the brightness of the general area. However, when dealing with environmental lighting in residential areas, it should not be forgotten that the lighting style of residential quarters is still quiet and comfortable. The ambient lighting in residential areas should only be used in the main entrance or public facilities to prevent residents from rest.
In summary, for the difference between residential district lighting and urban road lighting design, in addition to strictly complying with the normative requirements in the specific design, according to the specific conditions of residential districts and urban road lighting, safety and investment should be considered in a unified manner. Make the most reasonable design.
 Karen, Benya. Architectural lighting design and case analysis [M]. Mechanical Industry Press, 2005.
 Beijing Lighting Society Lighting Design Committee. Lighting Design Handbook (Second Edition) [M]. China Electric Power Press, 2007.
About the author: Xu Zhen, male, Yixing, Jiangsu, working in Yixing Power Supply Company, research direction: lighting design; Ma Yujun, male, Yixing, Jiangsu, working in Yixing City Lighting Management Office, research direction: lighting design.
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