Parsing the USB 3.0 standard

The so-called USB 3.0 is a new generation of USB interface, characterized by a very fast transfer rate, theoretically 4.8 Gbps, 10 times faster than the current 480 Mbps High Speed ​​USB (referred to as USB 2.0), the shape and the current USB interface are basically Consistent, compatible with USB 2.0 and USB 1.1 devices.

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Are you tired of waiting for nearly 20 minutes when copying a HD video? Although the speed of USB 2.0 has a qualitative leap compared with USB 1.1, we are still not satisfied, so... our familiar USB transfer rate has to accelerate forward!

The new generation interface called USB 3.0 is ten times faster than the current USB 2.0. The speed beyond the IEEE 1394 and eSATA is enough to make it stand out from all the "non-mainstream" interface mobile devices. Will it become the king of the future kings? Will other interfaces disappear as a result?

USB 3.0: Why is it so fast?

USB is already the most common standard transmission interface on devices such as MP3, MP4, DC, DV, printers, scanners, flash memory, mobile hard drives and motherboards. Although the theoretical data transfer rate of the mainstream USB 2.0 standard reaches 480 Mbps per second, it still cannot meet the needs of users, because with the increasing popularity of digital media, the capacity of high-definition video, game programs, and digital photos is several GB, and large-capacity flash memory USB devices such as MP4 and “massive” mobile hard disks are increasing, and users will encounter large files that transmit several GB or even tens of GB at the same time. If you still use the USB 2.0 standard, it's really slow. For example, when transferring music to a large-capacity MP3, it often takes a few minutes. If you want to transfer a larger file to a mobile hard disk, it sometimes takes tens of minutes. Take 25GB HD video transmission as an example. USB 2.0 takes more than 10 minutes, and as long as the device supports it, USB 3.0 theoretically takes only about 70 seconds.

Time is so precious, many users don't like to wait a long time while transferring files, waiting is always annoying, and fast synchronous instant transfer has become a necessary performance requirement. To this end, Intel and NEC, NXP Semiconductors, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, Texas Instruments and other giants introduced the USB 3.0 standard, USB 3.0 uses a new physical layer - which uses two channels to separate the data transmission and validation process, thus achieving A data transmission speed of 4.8 Gbps. In order to replace the polling and broadcast mechanism used by USB 2.0, USB 3.0 will use a packet routing technology and only allow the terminal device to transmit data when it is to be sent. The new link standard will also allow each component to support multiple data streams, and each data stream can maintain independent priority. This function can be used to terminate the interference caused by jitter during video transmission, and the data stream transmission mechanism. It also makes the inherent instruction queue possible, thus optimizing the data transfer of the USB3.0 interface.

Low cost: easy to implement, compatibility is still strong

Like USB 1.1 upgrade to USB 2.0, USB 3.0 still uses the same architecture as USB 2.0, backwards compatible with previous plug-and-play USB versions, whether USB 2.0 or USB 1.1 devices, compatible with USB 3.0 interface devices . From the interface structure, the USB 2.0 cable uses a 4-wire package design, so the USB 2.0 interface uses four metal contacts, which are +5V power, data-, data +, GND ground. However, USB 3.0 is not a broadcast bus. It uses a send list section to send packets in the packet header, a decentralized USB 3.0 interconnect on the upstream interface, and a USB 2.0 device on the downstream interface, enabling high-speed transmission and compatibility in a simple way. Double benefits.

Therefore, from the USB 3.0 interface, in addition to the four metal contacts with USB 2.0 interface, it adds five new new contacts inside. At the same time, in addition to the use of copper as a transmission medium, USB 3.0 interfaces and cables can also support optical fiber transmission functions, and the transmission speed of optical fiber output is obvious to everyone. It is understood that after using fiber optic connection, USB 3.0 can reach 20 times or even 30 times faster than USB 2.0. Undoubtedly, the ultimate goal of the USB 3.0 standard is not limited to the data transmission rate of 4.8 Gbps, but it is hoped to further break this limit speed in the future. With the full application of fiber optic wires, USB 3.0 will get higher transmission speed, and the future will be mainstream. The extended application on the product will be further demonstrated. For example, the transmission of USB high-speed networking or broadcast television program signals on a PC is realized.


Pin definition for USB 3.0 interface

Adequate power supply: streamlined "big equipment" cable

We know that many USB devices do not need to use the power supply independently when they are used. Plug in the motherboard USB interface and use it directly. This is because the USB interface has a current output function, but unfortunately, due to the USB 2.0 interface technology. Limit, it can only provide 500mA current output, which can only meet the needs of low-power USB mobile devices (such as MP3, flash, mouse, keyboard, etc.), for higher power USB devices, such as mobile hard disk, USB burning Machine, USB TV box, etc., 500mA current can not meet the normal operation of the internal motor under high load. Therefore, if only one USB interface is used, various faults will occur when the power consumption is high. For example, the mobile hard disk is insufficiently powered. The large-capacity file cannot be transferred normally, and the external USB burner cannot be burned normally.

For this reason, high-power USB devices often need to use an auxiliary power supply to work properly, such as adding an auxiliary USB cable to supply power exclusively, or independently using the power supply. This not only increases the cost, but also makes it more convenient because of the increased power supply cable or power adapter, the convenience and ease of use of the USB device is greatly reduced. The emergence of the USB 3.0 standard can solve the problem caused by insufficient power supply of USB 2.0. According to the official data, the next-generation USB 3.0 interface is expected to reach a supply current of more than 1A, and the USB 3.0 interface has been optimized (such as copper wire), which has faster transmission efficiency and has its own capability. Reduced power consumption, even high-power USB devices such as USB TV cards, USB burners, large-capacity mobile hard drives, can be directly connected to the USB 3.0 interface, without worrying about insufficient power supply, USB device convenience And ease of use has also been greatly improved.


USB 3.0 cable connector

Giant promotion: accelerate the pace of USB 3.0 popularization

USB is currently the most widely used and most popular transmission interface for PC and digital electronic products. After years of development, the USB standard has been recognized by consumers. Now everyone can come up with a digital product, and any computer can easily find the USB interface. In addition, USB 3.0 has many advantages in transmission speed and expansion capability. The digital era requires high-speed performance and reliable interconnection to realize the transmission of huge amounts of data in daily life. USB 3.0 can well cope with this challenge, and it must Will become the mainstream transmission interface on computers, computer peripherals and digital devices.

According to past experience, USB 3.0 is jointly promoted by Intel, NEC, NXP Semiconductors, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, Texas Instruments and other giants. Whether it is technical strength, promotion effect, or support from third-party chip vendors, the future popularity of USB 3.0 is no longer problem. It is understood that the complete USB 3.0 specification has been developed, the USB 3.0 control chip will initially adopt the form of discrete silicon, and the USB 3.0 chip is expected to be launched in the first half of 2008, that is, the USB device is expected in the first half of 2008. Will appear in the market one after another, the new generation of motherboard chipset will also begin to integrate USB3.0 interface, USB 3.0 is expected to begin to spread in 2009, let us wait and see.

Technical Tips: USB interface is widely used in various IT products, but the development trend of PC, notebook, consumer digital and other products is wireless, such as Bluetooth technology can achieve single-point to multi-point wireless within 10 meters Data and voice transmission, its data transmission bandwidth up to 1Mbps, although its current transmission rate is huge compared to USB 3.0, but there is still room for development, due to low power consumption, simple application, etc., many mobile phones, notebooks and other equipment With a Bluetooth interface and a wireless device with a high transmission rate, I believe that no one wants to carry a cable with them and connect them before they can be used. Wi-Fi is the transmission interface of mobile phones, MP4s, notebooks and even DV machines and printers. Although USB is now dominant, in the long run, only wireless USB technology can make USB a stable position.


Several major business giants jointly released the USB 3.0 standard

Question: IEEE 1394, eSATA take this class?

From 12Mbps upgrade of USB 1.1 to 480Mbps of USB 2.0, the improvement rate has reached 40 times, and the upgrade from USB 2.0 standard to USB 3.0 standard is only 10 times, but the improvement of 10 times speed has great application significance, since USB 3.0 data transmission rate reached 4.8Gbps, far higher than other transmission standards, such as IEEE 1394 data transmission is usually between 400Mbps ~ 3.2Gbps, and the new generation of eSATA standard known as "USB mobile hard disk terminator" With only 3Gbps data transmission rate, then, is IEEE 1394 and eSATA facing the end of the "class"?

This is not the case, because IEEE 1394 and eSATA have their own application positioning. The IEEE 1394 standard has a maximum data transfer rate of 3.2 Gbps and is lagging behind USB 3.0 in speed. However, it provides point-to-point transmission, so that it does not depend on the PC. It can realize data transmission between devices, and supports synchronous and asynchronous transmission modes. It can connect 63 devices, can transmit digital video and digital audio signals at the same time, and has no signal loss during acquisition and recording, making the IEEE 1394 interface more Suitable for multimedia devices (such as DV machines, capture cards), these are unmatched by the USB 3.0 standard. Overall, the application of the IEEE 1394 interface is more professional and free. However, due to the lack of professionalism and vendor promotion, the popularity of IEEE 1394 devices is not high. Usually, a device has both an IEEE 1394 interface and a USB interface.

For the eSATA standard, it is actually an extension of the SATA interface, also known as an external SATA interface, which supports plug and play, but has great limitations in function. First, it does not support the power supply function, and must cooperate with the motherboard. The eSATA interface is used, which means that it can't get rid of the limitations of PC. It is generally only suitable for mobile hard drives, convenient DVD drives and TV boxes. It is useless for today's popular consumer digital electronic devices, so it is in USB 3.0. After the launch of the standard, eSATA is the transmission standard facing the most competitive pressure. However, it should be noted that since eSATA is derived from the SATA chip on the motherboard, it has a boot-up function. That is to say, the computer can be connected to an eSATA hard drive or an eSATA optical drive to boot the system, which is a troublesome USB hard drive and USB optical drive. This is important for system maintenance, server exchange of data under DOS data, but for the general public, the status and development of eSATA may end.


1394 and USB interface on DV

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